Boeing 747 hull-losses

 

Following is a listing of all Boeing 747 aircraft, damaged beyond repair in accidents. See references for a list of publications
used to compile this listing. # 1) 06.09.70 () Boeing 747-121
N752PA (19656/34) Pan American World Airways
0 fatalities / 0 occupants +
Location: Cairo IAP (Egypt) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Ground from: Amsterdam-Schiphol APT to: New York-John F. Kennedy IAP Flightnr.: PA93
The aircraft was hijacked by two men just after leaving Amsterdam. The flight diverted to Beirut, where 7 others boarded the plane. The aircraft was
flown to Cairo. All occupants were released and the aircraft was blown up.
Source: Aircraft hijackings and other criminal acts against civilaviation : statisctics and narrative reports / FAA

# 2) 23.07.73 () Boeing 747-246B
JA-8109 (20503/180) Japan Air Lines - JAL
0 fatalities / 0 occupants +
Location: Benghazi-Benina (Libya) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Ground from: Amsterdam-Schiphol APT to: Anchorage IAP Flightnr.: JA404
Flight 404 was hijacked by 4 men and a woman, shortly after leaving Amsterdam. The woman hijacker got killed in an accidental explosion of the
explosive device she was carrying. The aircraft landed at Dubai and later took off for Damascus and Benghazi. All passengers and crew were released
and the aircraft blown up.
Source:

# 3) 20.11.74 (ca. 07:50) Boeing 747-130
D-ABYB (19747/29) Lufthansa
59 fatalities / 157 occupants +
Location: Nairobi-Wilson APT (Kenya) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Take-off from: Nairobi-Wilson APT to: Johannesburg-Jan Smuts APT Flightnr.: LH540
Boeing 747 D-ABYB was taking off for the last leg of the Frankfurt-Nairobi- Johannesburg flight when the crew felt vibration or buffeting following lift
off. The captain, suspecting wheel imbalance, raised the gear. A lack of acceleration forced the crew to lower the nose in order to maintain airspeed. The
Boeing continued to descend however and contacted the ground 1120m past the end of Runway 24 and struck an elevated road 114m further on. The
aircraft broke up and caught fire before coming to rest 454m past the initial point of impact. PROBABLE CAUSE: "The accident was caused by the
crew initiating a take-off with the leading edge flaps retracted because the pneumatic system which operates them had not been switched on. This
resulted in the aircraft becoming airborne in a partially stalled condition which the pilots did not identify in the short time available to them for recovery.
Major contributory factors were the lack of warning of a critical condition of leading edge flap position and the failure of the crew to complete
satisfactorily their checklist items."
Source:

# 4) 12.06.75 () Boeing 747-128
N28888 (20542/201) Air France
0 fatalities / 394 occupants +
Location: Bombay (India) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Take-off from: Bombay to: Flightnr.:
During a 180ø turn at the beginning of Runway 27 the No.11 tire (on the right hand maingear) failed. During take-off the no.12 tire also failed. Wheels
and braking assembly then started rubbing the runway, causing a fire. The take-off was aborted. Initial delay in shutting down the engines and an
improper deployment of fire services caused the fire to spread.
Source:

# 5) 09.05.76 () Boeing 747-131F
5-8104 (19677/73) Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force
17 fatalities / 17 occupants +
Location: Madrid; nr (Spain) Nature: Freight
Phase: Descent from: to: Madrid-Torrejon AFB Flightnr.: ULF48
The aircraft was struck by lightning while descending through FL100 on its way to Torrejon AFB. The explosion in the no.1 fuel tank which followed
caused severe damage to the left wing. 54 Seconds later the left wing failed and freighter crashed. POSSIBLE CAUSE: Ignition of fuel vapour in the
ullage of the tank in the vicinity of a motor drive fuel valve.
Source: FI 15.5.76(1283)

# 6) 27.03.77 (17.06) Boeing 747-121
N736PA (19643/11) Pan American World Airways
335 fatalities / 396 occupants + 248
Location: Tenerife (Spain) Nature: Non Scheduled Passenger
Phase: from: Tenerife-Norte Los Rodeos to: Las Palmas Flightnr.: PA1736
At 12.30h a bomb explodes in the Las Palmas passenger terminal. Because of warnings of a possible second bomb, the airport was closed. A large
number of flights were diverted to Tenerife, a.o. KLM Flight 4805 from Amsterdam and PanAm Flight 1736 (coming from Los Angeles and New York).
Las Palmas Airport opened to traffic again at 15.00h. Because the PanAm passengers remained on aboard it was possible to leave Tenerife at once. The
taxiways were congested by other aircraft however. This meant the PanAm crew had to backtrack on Runway 12 for take-off on Runway 30. The
entrance to Runway 12 however, was blocked by the KLM Boeing. The PanAm flight had to wait for almost 2 hours before all KLM passengers (except
1) had reboarded and refuelling had taken place. The KLM flight was then cleared to backtrack Runway 12 and make a 180deg. turn at the end. Three
minutes later (at 17.02h) Pan Am 1736 was cleared to follow the KLM aircraft and backtrack Runway 12. The PanAm crew were told to leave the
runway at the third taxiway and report leaving the runway. At 17.05:44h KLM 4805 reported ready for take-off and was given instructions for a Papa
beacon departure. The KLM crew repeated the instructions and added "We are now at take-off". The brakes were released and KLM 4805 started the
take- off roll. Tenerife tower, knowing that Pan Am 1736 was still taxying down the runway replied "OK ...... Stand by for take-off, I will call you." This
message coincided with the PanAm crew's transmission "No ... uh we're stil taxiing down the runway, the Clipper 1736". These communications
caused a shrill noise in the KLM cockpit, lasting approx. 3.74 seconds. Tenerife tower replied: "Papa Alpha 1736 report runway clear.", wereupon the
PanAm crew replied: "OK, will report when we're clear". This caused some concerns with the KLM flight engineer asking the captain: "Is he not clear
then?" After repeating his question the captain answers emphatically: "Oh, yes". A number of second before impact the KLM crew saw the PanAm
Boeing still taxiing down the runway. The crew tried to climb away and became airborne after a 65ft taildrag in an excessive rotation. The PanAm crew
immediately turned the aircraft to the right and applied full power. The KLM aircraft was airborne, but the fuselage skidded over the PanAm's aft
fuselage, destroying it and shearing off the tail. The KLM aircraft flew on and crashed out of control 150m further on, sliding another 300m bursting
into flames. PROBABLE CAUSE: "The KLM aircraft had taken off without take-off clearance, in the absolute conviction that this clearance had been
obtained, which was the result of a misunderstanding between the tower and the KLM aircraft. This misunderstanding had arisen from the mutual use
of usual terminology which, however, gave rise to misinterpretation. In combination with a number of other coinciding circumstances, the premature
take-off of the KLM aircraft resulted in a collision with the Pan Am aircraft, because the latter was still on the runway since it had missed the correct
intersection."
Source: Flight Safety Digest July 1995(1-10)/Flight Safety Foundation; ICAO Circular 153-AN/56 (p.22-68) Human factors report on the Tenerife
accident / Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA)

# 7) 27.03.77 (17.06) Boeing 747-206B
PH-BUF (20400/157) KLM Royal Dutch Airlines
248 fatalities / 248 occupants + 335
Location: Tenerife (Spain) Nature: Non Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Take-off from: Tenerife-Norte Los Rodeos to: Las Palmas Flightnr.: KL4805
At 12.30h a bomb explodes in the Las Palmas passenger terminal. Because of warnings of a possible second bomb, the airport was closed. A large
number of flights were diverted to Tenerife, a.o. KLM Flight 4805 from Amsterdam and PanAm Flight 1736 (coming from Los Angeles and New York).
Las Palmas Airport opened to traffic again at 15.00h. Because the PanAm passengers remained on aboard it was possible to leave Tenerife at once. The
taxiways were congested by other aircraft however. This meant the PanAm crew had to backtrack on Runway 12 for take-off on Runway 30. The
entrance to Runway 12 however, was blocked by the KLM Boeing. The PanAm flight had to wait for almost 2 hours before all KLM passengers (except
1) had reboarded and refuelling had taken place. The KLM flight was then cleared to backtrack Runway 12 and make a 180deg. turn at the end. Three
minutes later (at 17.02h) Pan Am 1736 was cleared to follow the KLM aircraft and backtrack Runway 12. The PanAm crew were told to leave the
runway at the third taxiway and report leaving the runway. At 17.05:44h KLM 4805 reported ready for take-off and was given instructions for a Papa
beacon departure. The KLM crew repeated the instructions and added "We are now at take-off". The brakes were released and KLM 4805 started the
take- off roll. Tenerife tower, knowing that Pan Am 1736 was still taxying down the runway replied "OK ...... Stand by for take-off, I will call you." This
message coincided with the PanAm crew's transmission "No ... uh we're stil taxiing down the runway, the Clipper 1736". These communications
caused a shrill noise in the KLM cockpit, lasting approx. 3.74 seconds. Tenerife tower replied: "Papa Alpha 1736 report runway clear.", wereupon the
PanAm crew replied: "OK, will report when we're clear". This caused some concerns with the KLM flight engineer asking the captain: "Is he not clear
then?" After repeating his question the captain answers emphatically: "Oh, yes". A number of second before impact the KLM crew saw the PanAm
Boeing still taxiing down the runway. The crew tried to climb away and became airborne after a 65ft taildrag in an excessive rotation. The PanAm crew
immediately turned the aircraft to the right and applied full power. The KLM aircraft was airborne, but the fuselage skidded over the PanAm's aft
fuselage, destroying it and shearing off the tail. The KLM aircraft flew on and crashed out of control 150m further on, sliding another 300m bursting
into flames. PROBABLE CAUSE: "The KLM aircraft had taken off without take-off clearance, in the absolute conviction that this clearance had been
obtained, which was the result of a misunderstanding between the tower and the KLM aircraft. This misunderstanding had arisen from the mutual use
of usual terminology which, however, gave rise to misinterpretation. In combination with a number of other coinciding circumstances, the premature
take-off of the KLM aircraft resulted in a collision with the Pan Am aircraft, because the latter was still on the runway since it had missed the correct
intersection."
Source: Flight Safety Digest July 1995(1-10)/Flight Safety Foundation; ICAO Circular 153-AN/56 (p.22-68) Human factors report on the Tenerife
accident / Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA)

# 8) 01.01.78 (ca. 20:15) Boeing 747-237B
VT-EBD (19959/124) Air India
213 fatalities / 213 occupants +
Location: Arabian Sea, off Bandra (India) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Climb from: to: Dubai IAP Flightnr.: AI855
The aircraft left Bombay-Santa Cruz Airport for a flight to Dubai (Flight AI855). Following a right turn, the aircraft rolled to the left beyond 90ø, lost
control and crashed into shallow (10m deep) water, 3km offshore at an angle of 35-40ø. PROBABLE CAUSE: The Attitude Director Indicator (ADI)
probably malfunctioned during the right turn, which led to a complete loss of situational awareness of the crew memebers.
Source:

# 9) 19.11.80 () Boeing 747-2B5B
HL-7445 (21773/366) Korean Air Lines - KAL
14 fatalities / 212 occupants +
Location: Seoul-Kimpo IAP (Korea) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Landing from: to: Seoul-Kimpo IAP Flightnr.:
The aircraft struck a 45ø embankent slope 2.4m from the top, crashed on Runway 14, broke up and caught fire. Weather at the time of the accident
was a visibility 1000m, fog, temperature 2deg.
Source:

# 10) 04.08.83 () Boeing 747-121
N738PA (19645/14) Pan American World Airways
0 fatalities / 243 occupants +
Location: Karachi IAP (Pakistan) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Landing from: to: Karachi IAP Flightnr.:
The aircraft touched down on a wet runway and reverse thrust was applied on all engines, except no.4 (of which the reverser had been de-activated).
When coming out of reverse, the no.4 engine reached 1.4199 EPR, causing the Boeing th yaw to the left and depart the runway 2400m past the
threshold. PROBABLE CAUSE: Inadvertent application of power on the no.4 engine while coming out of reverse.
Source:

# 11) 01.09.83 (18.26) Boeing 747-230B
HL-7442 (20559/186) Korean Air Lines - KAL
269 fatalities / 269 occupants +
Location: Okhotsk Sea () Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Cruise from: Anchorage IAP, AK to: Seoul-Kimpo IAP Flightnr.: KE007
The Boeing arrived at Anchorage at 03.30 local time after a flight from New York. At 05.00h the aircraft took off again from Runway 32, bound for
Seoul. The flight was cleared directly to the Bethel VOR beacon and then on to the Romeo 20 route. However, the aircraft started diverging from it's
intended course and passed 12mls North of the Bethel beacon. While approaching the Kamchatka peninsula, 6 MiG-23 fighters were scrambled.
Because a US Boeing RC-135 intelligence plane was flying in the area East off Kamchatka, the Soviet defence forces probably thought the B747 radar
echo to be the RC-135. KAL 007 left Russian airspace over the Okhostk Sea and the fighters returned to their base. Passing abeam the Nippi beacon
(4hrs after take-off), the aircraft was 185mls off course and headed for Sakhalin. Two Soviet Sukhoi Su-15 fighters were scrambled from the
Dolinsk-Sokol airbase at 17.42h UTC and 17.54 respectively. At 18.16h UTC flight 007 re-entered Soviet airspace. At 18.22h the Soviet command
ordered destruction of the target (for the 2nd time). Two air-to-air missiles were lauched by one of the fighters and struck the Boeing at 18.26h. Cabin
pressure was lost and the aircraft suffered control problems, causing the Boeing to spiral down and crash into the sea.
Source: See: Special section

# 12) 27.11.83 (00.06) Boeing 747-283B
HK-2910 (21381/311) Avianca
181 fatalities / 192 occupants +
Location: Madrid-Barajas APT; 12km SE (Spain) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Final Approach from: Paris-Charles de Gaulle to: Madrid-Barajas Flightnr.: AV011
Avianca Flight 011 took off from Paris-Charles de Gaulle at 22.25h for a flight to Bogota via Madrid. The crew intercepted the ILS (for an approach to
Runway 33) on the wrong track and continued to descend below MDA. This led to some problems with inserting the Madrid VOR coordiantes in the
aircraft's INS (inertial navigation system), which caused the pilot to initiate a right turn short of the VOR beacon (the point were he should have made
the turn). The right maingear and no.4 engine suddenly contacted a hill at an altitude of 2247ft and a speed of 142kts. Three seconds later the aircraft
impacted a second hill at a sped of 135kts and a 4,9deg. nose-up attitude. Six seconds after contacting the 2nd hill, the aircraft (at 126kts) hit the
ground with the right wing, which broke off. The Boeing cartwheeled and broke in five pieces and came to rest upside down. PROBABLE CAUSE:
"The pilot-in-cormnand, without having any precise knowledge of his position, set out to intercept the ILS on an incorrect track without initiating the
published instrument approach manoeuvre; in so doing he descended below all; the area safety minima until he collided with the ground. Contributory
factors were: a) Inaccurate navigation by the crew, which placed them in an incorrect position for initiating the approach manoeuvre.; b) Failure of the
crew to take corrective action in accordance with the operating instructions of the ground proximity warning system.; c) Deficient teamwork on the
flight deck.; d) Imprecise position information supplied to the aircraft by APP.; e) The APP controller, in failing to inform the aircraft that radar service
had terminated, did not maintain a proper watch on the radar scope." (Accident Investigation Board, Spain)
Source: ICAO Circular 196-AN/119 (105-107, incomplete)

# 13) 16.03.85 () Boeing 747-3B3
F-GDUA (22870/573) Union de Transportes A,riens - UTA
0 fatalities / 0 occupants +
Location: Paris-Charles de Gaulle (France) Nature:
Phase: Ground from: - to: - Flightnr.:
Destroyed by fire.
Source:

# 14) 23.06.85 (07.15 GMT) Boeing 747-237B
VT-EFO (21473/330) Air India
329 fatalities / 329 occupants +
Location: Atlantic Ocean () Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Cruise from: Montreal-Mirabel IAP to: London-Heathrow APT Flightnr.: AI182
The aircraft left Toronto almost 2 hours late due to the installation of a 5th spare engine, fitted below the left wing. The engine had to be ferried for
repairs in India. After a stopover at Montreal, Flight 182 continued to London. At 07.15h GMT the aircraft suddenly disappeared from radar screens.
An explosion had occurred at FL310, causing a rapid decompression, followed by an inflight break-up. The aircraft crashed into the 2000m deep ocean
off Shannon. PROBABLE CAUSE: A bomb, placed on board by a Sikh terrorist, caused an explosion, powerful enough to cause an inflight break-up.
Source: Aircraft hijackings and other criminal acts against civil aviation : statistical and narrative reports / FAA; Aviation disasters / D. Gero (p.
182-183); Air Disasters / S. Stewart; Flight International 1.11.86 + 18.10.86

# 15) 12.08.85 (18.56) Boeing 747-SR46
JA-8119 (20783/230) Japan Air Lines - JAL
520 fatalities / 524 occupants +
Location: Tokyo; nr (Japan) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Climb from: Tokyo-Haneda IAP to: Osaka IAP Flightnr.: JL123
JAL Flight 123 took off from Tokyo-Haneda at 18.12h for a flight to Osaka. At 18.24h, while climbing through 23900ft at a speed of 300kts, an unusual
vibration occurred. An impact force raised the nose of the aircraft and control problems were experienced. Two minutes later hydarulic pressure had
dropped and ailerons, elevators and yaw dumper became inerative, followed by dutch roll and plughoid oscillations (unusual movement in which
altitude and speed change significantly in a 20-100sec. cycle without change of angle of attack). The aircraft started to descend to 6600ft while the crew
tried to control the aircraft by using engine thrust. Upon reaching 6600ft the airspeed had dropped to 108kts. The aircraft then climbed with a 39deg.
angle of attack to a maximum of approx. 13400ft and started to descend again. JAl123 finally brushed against a tree covered ridge, continued and
struck another ridge, bursting into flames. PROBABLE CAUSE: "Deterioration of flight characteristics and loss of primary flight controls due to rupture
of the aft pressure bulkhead with subsequent ruptures of the tail, vertical fin and hydraulic flight control systems. The reason for the aft pressure
bulkhead rupture was that its strength was reduced by the fatigue cracks propagating in the spliced portion of the bulkhead's webs. The initiation and
propagation of the fatigue cracks are attributable to the improper repairs of the bulkhead, conducted in 1978, and since the fatigue cracks were not
found in the later maintenance inspections, this contributed to the accident."
Source:

# 16) 02.12.85 () Boeing 747-228B
F-GCBC (22427/485) Air France
0 fatalities / 273 occupants +
Location: Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Landing from: to: Flightnr.:
The aircraft veered off the runway on landing, crossed a ditch and collided with a concrete ramp. It appeared that the no.1 engine throttle cable had
broken, making it impossible for the flightcrew to control engine power. The engine had accellerated to an unusually high level of (forward) thrust
(above take-off power).
Source:

# 17) 28.11.87 (00:07 UTC) Boeing 747-244B
ZS-SAS (22171/488) South African Airways - SAA
159 fatalities / 159 occupants +
Location: Indian Ocean () Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Descent from: Taibei-Chang Kai Shek IAP to: Flightnr.: SA295
South African flight 295 took off from Taibei at 14.23, carrying 159 occupants and 6 pallets of cargo in the main deck cargo hold. At 23.49h the crew
reported Mauritius Approach control they had a fire on board. An emergency descent to FL140 was carried out. Mauritius ATC cleared the aircraft to
FL50, followed by a approach clearance. The captain's response was the last radio contact with SA295. It appeared that a fire had started in the cargo
pallet at position PR. The aircraft had somehow lost control, broke up and crashed into the Ocean. PROBALE CAUSE: Fire of an unknown origin had
possibly: 1) incapacitated the crew; 2) caused desorientation of the crew due to thick smoke; 3) caused crew distraction; 4) weakened the aircraft
structure, causing an inflight break-up.; 5) burned through several control cables; 6) caused loss of control due to deformation of the aircraft fuselage.
Source:

# 18) 21.12.88 (19.03) Boeing 747-121A
N739PA (19646/15) Pan American World Airways
259 fatalities / 259 occupants + 11
Location: Lockerbie (UK) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Cruise from: London-Heathrow APT to: New York-John F. Kennedy IAP Flightnr.: PA103
Flight PA103 departed London-Heathrow Runway 27R for New York at 18.25. The aircraft levlled off at FL310 31 minutes later. At 19.03 Shanwick
Oceanic Control transmitted an oceanic clearance. At that time an explosion occurred in the aircraft's forward cargo hold at position 4L. The explosive
forces produced a large hole in the fuselage structure and disrupted the main cabin floor. Major cracks continued to propagate from the large hole while
containers and items of cargo ejected through the hole, striking the empennage, left- and right tailplane. The forward fuselage and flight deck area
separated when the aircraft was in a nosedown and left roll attitude, peeling away to the right at Station 800. The nose section then knocked the No.3
engine off its pylon. The remaining aircraft disintegrated while it was descending nearly vertically from 19000ft to 9000ft. A scetion of cabin floor and
baggage hold (from approx. Station 1241-1920) fell onto housing at Rosebank Terrace, Lockerbie. The main wing structure struck the ground with a
high yaw angle at Sherwood Crescent, Lockerbie causing a massive fire. The Semtex bomb which caused the explosion had probably been hidden in a
radio cassette player and was transferred to PA103 from a Pan Am Boeing 727 flight, arriving from Frankfurt. The Polular Front for the Liberation of
Palestine General Command (PFLP-GC) was probably the organisation responsible for the bombing. PROBABLE CAUSE: "The in-flight disintegration of
the aircraft was caused by the detonation of an improvised explosive device located in a baggage container positioned on the left side of the forward
cargo hold at aircraft station 700." (Accident Report 2/90)
Source: ICAO Circular 260-AN/154 (133-188); ASW 12.4.93(3); AW&ST 2.1.89 (28-32)

# 19) 19.02.89 (06.36) Boeing 747-249F
N807FT (21828/408) Flying Tiger Line
4 fatalities / 4 occupants +
Location: Kuala Lumpur; 7,5 mls (Malaysia) Nature: Freight
Phase: Final Approach from: to: Kuala Lumpur-Subang IAP Flightnr.: FT66
The Boeing crashed into a wooded hillside, while on an NDB approach to Runway 33. The aircraft had descended 1800ft below minimum altitude and
collided with a hill at 600ft MSL. PROBABLE CAUSE: Non-standard phraseology was used by Kuala Lumpur ATC, causign the the crew to
misinterpret the instructions.
Source: ICAO Adrep Summary; AW&ST 27.02.89 (24); FI 17- 12.01.90 (44)

# 20) 07.05.90 () Boeing 747-237B
VT-EBO (20558/188) Air India
0 fatalities / 215 occupants +
Location: Delhi (India) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Landing from: London-Heathrow APT to: Delhi-Indira Gandhi IAP Flightnr.: AI132
The Boeing 747 touched down at Delhi after a flight from London. On application of reverse thrust, a failure of the no.1 engine pylon to wing
attachment caused this engine to tilt nose down. Hot exhaustion gasses caused a fire on the left wing. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair.
PROBABLE CAUSE: "The accident was caused due to the migration of the improperly installed diagonal-brace aft fuse-pin of the No.1 engine from its
fitting which substantially reduced the load carrying capability of the engine fittings resulting in failure of the upper-link forward fuse pin due to
excessive loads on account of probably improper landing leading to a partial separation of engine and fire."
Source: NTSB/SIR-94/02 (p. 16)

# 21) 18.02.91 () Boeing 747-136
G-AWND (19764/107) British Airways
0 fatalities / 0 occupants +
Location: Kuwait City IAP (Kuwait) Nature: -
Phase: Ground from: - to: - Flightnr.: -
The aircraft was at Kuwait Airport during the Iraqi invasion of August 2, 1990 and blown up by Iraqi forces when allied forced intervened.
Source:

# 22) 29.12.91 (ca 15.05) Boeing 747-2R7F
B- 198 (22390/482) China Airlines
5 fatalities / 5 occupants +
Location: Wanli; nr (Taiwan) Nature: Freight
Phase: Climb from: Taibei-Chang Kai Shek IAP to: Anchorage IAP Flightnr.: CI358
The aircraft was climbing through 5200ft when the no.3 engine separated from the wing. The engine struck the no.4 engine, which separated also.
Control was lost and the aircraft crashed into a hillside at 700ft. The aircraft had accumulated 45868 hours and 9094 cycles. PROBABLE CAUSE: Initial
findings suggest a failure of both no.3 engine inboard midspar fittings, partly in fatigue partly ductile.
Source: S152; Aircraft Accident Report 92-11 El Al Flight 1862 ... / Netherlands Aviation Safety Board (p.32); AW&ST 6.1.92 (23); fi 8-14.1.92 (11)

# 23) 04.10.92 (17.35 UTC) Boeing 747-258F
4X-AXG (21737/362) El Al
4 fatalities / 4 occupants + 47
Location: Amsterdam (Netherlands) Nature: Freight
Phase: Climb from: Amsterdam-Schiphol APT to: Tel Aviv-Ben Gurion Flightnr.: LY1862
PROBABLE CAUSE: "The design and certification of the B747 pylon was found to be inadequate to provide the required level of safety. Furthermore the
system to ensure structural integrity by inspection failed. This ultimately caused - probably initiated by fatigue in the inboard midspar fuse-pin - the no.3
pylon and engine to separate from the wing in such a way that the no.4 pylon and engine were torn off, part of the leading edge of the wing was
damaged and the use of several systems was lost or limited. This subsequently left the flight crew with very limited control of the airplane. Because of the
marginal controllability a safe landing became highly improbable, if not virtually impossible."
Source: Aircraft Accident Report 92-11 El Al Flight 1862 Boeing 747-258F 4X-AXG Bijlmermeer, Amsterdam October 4, 1992 / Netherlands Aviation
Safety Board; NTSB Safety Recommendations A-92-117

# 24) 04.11.93 () Boeing 747-409
B- 165 (24313/966) China Airlines
0 fatalities / 396 occupants +
Location: Hon Kong-Kai Tak APT (Hong Kong) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Landing from: to: Hon Kong-Kai Tak APT Flightnr.: CI605
The aircraft skidded off the wet runway and ended up in shallow water. The flight landed with heavy crosswinds, caused by tropical storm Ira.
Source: ASW 8.11.93(4) + ASW 13.12.93(6) + ASW 28.3.94(3); Air Letter No. 13,186 - 20.2.95 (1)

# 25) 20.12.95 (11.36 EST) Boeing 747-136
N605FF (20271/172) Tower Air
0 fatalities / 468 occupants +
Location: New York-John F. Kennedy IAP (USA) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Take-off from: New York-John F. Kennedy IAP, NY to: Miami IAP Flightnr.: FF41
Flight 41, bound for Miami was pushed back from the gate at 10.36h. At 11.00h deicing procedures were started at 11.00h, using both Type I and Type
II fluids. The crew received clearance for Runway 4L at 11.16h and started to taxy slowly towards the assigned runway. The aircraft was stopped on
the taxiway to clear the engines of any ice by increasing power to 45% N1 for 10 seconds. The aircraft continued and the flight was cleared to taxi in
position and hold at 11.32h and got take-off clearance at 11.36h. The take-off was normal, until shortly before 80kts. The aircraft started to move to the
left; corrections by the crew were ineffective. The captain then aborted the takeoff by retarding powerlevers to idle and by applying maximum braking.
He didn't use reverse thrust, because of the slow speed, long runway and the possibility that it could worsen directional control. At 2100ft past the
threshold, the 747 departed the left side of the runway. The aircraft finally struck a transformer, causing the no,4 engine to separate. The Boeing came
to rest at 4800ft past the threshold and 600ft to the left of the runway centerline with the nosegear collapsed. PROBABLE CAUSE" The captain's failure
to reject the takeoff in a timely manner when excessive nosewheel steering tiller inputs resulted in a loss of directional control on a slippery runway.
Inadequate Boeing 747 slippery runway operating procedures developed by Tower Air, Inc., and the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group and the
inadequate fidelity of Boeing 747 flight training simulators for slippery runway operations contributed to the cause of this accident. The captain's
reapplication of forward thrust before the airplane departed the left side of the runway contributed to the severity of the runway excursion and damage
to the airplane." (NTSB)
Source: AW&ST 1.1.96(31); Knipselkrant Luchtvaart 52-1995; S201(50); ASW 29.01.96(6) + 05.02.96(7) + 26.02.96(7) + 4.11.96 (8); NTSB Safety
Recommendations A-96-45 through -47

# 26) 17.07.96 (20.31 EDT) Boeing 747-131
N93119 (20083/153) Trans World Airlines - TWA
230 fatalities / 230 occupants +
Location: Long Island, off (USA) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Climb from: New York-John F. Kennedy IAP, NY to: Paris-Charles de Gaulle Flightnr.: TW800

Source: AW&ST 22.07.96 (20-27) + 29.07.96 (26-32) + 05.08.96 (28-33) + 12.08.96 (33-35) + 19.08.96 (84-87) + 26.08.96 (30-31) + 02.09.96 (75, 77) +
23.09.96 (36- 38) + 19.05.97 (32) + 14.07.97 (58-62) ; FI 9- 15.10.96(6)
See: Special section

# 27) 12.11.96 (18.40) Boeing 747-168B
HZ-AIH (22748/555) Saudia
312 fatalities / 312 occupants + 37
Location: Charki Dadri; 3mls (India) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Climb from: Delhi-Indira Gandhi IAP to: Dhahran IAP Flightnr.: SV763
Air Kazakhstan Flight 1907 had taken off from Chimkent for a flight to New Delhi and was inbound to Delhi on Airway G452, descending to FL150.
Saudia Flight 763 had taken off from New Delhi at 18.32h for a scheduled flight to Dhahran and Jeddah. The aircraft followed the Parvi SID and
climbed to FL140. Apparently the Kazakh aircraft had descended below its assigned altitude and was flying at 14500ft when the crew were told there
was a Saudi Boeing 747 8 miles away at FL140. Thirteen seconds later the Ilyushin had descended another 310ft. Shortly afterwards both aircraft
collided, plummeted down in flames and crashed in an arid farming area.
Source: AW&ST 18.11.96 (34-36); IHT 6.5.97
Pilot eror focus of India Collision investigation - Nov. 14, 1996 India buries, cremates victims of air disaster - Nov. 14, 1996

# 28) 05.08.97 (01.50) Boeing 747-3B5
HL7468 (22487/605) Korean Air
223 fatalities / 254 occupants +
Location: Guam-Agana IAP; nr (USA) Nature: Scheduled Passenger
Phase: Final Approach from: Seoul-Kimpo IAP to: Flightnr.: KE801

Source: Bill Harms; CNN

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